JO Macías-Macías, JJG Quezada-Euán, JM Tapia-Gonzalez, F Contreras-Escareño (2014) Nesting sites, nest density and spatial distribution of Melipona colimana Ayala (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Meliponini) in two highland zones of Western, Mexico. Sociobiology 61(4): 423-427
Melipona colimana Ayala is endemic to the temperate forests of western Mexico and may be in conservation risk due to forest exploitation. Differences between the density of nests, nesting sites and spatial distribution in two places with different levels of human disturbance were established. A preserved (P) and a disturbed area (D) were identified: the forest had not been exploited for more than 18 years in the P zone, while there had been recent forest exploitation of D zone in less than two years. It was determined that nesting sites, nest density and the number of potential nest sites were predominant in the P zone. In total, 27 of 30 colonies were found on oak trees (Quercus laurina) with a diameter at breast height of 183.4 ± 34.21 cm which shows a close relationship of this bee species with this type of tree. A positive correlation between the DBH of the nesting sites in relation to the trees with nests and the presence of cavities was found. The nests are distributed in the form of aggregates in P and D zones (R = 0.31 and 0.39) with a density of 0.17 haˉ¹ and 0.04 haˉ¹ colonies respectively. Forestry exploitation seems to be affecting wild populations since the trees that bees use as nesting sites are destroyed in D zone.