viernes, 3 de octubre de 2014
Euglossines have long been regarded as largely solitary, though some species are known to exhibit social behavior. We studied the nesting behavior of Euglossa viridissima over an annual cycle, comparing sociality and offspring production across the rainy (RS) and dry seasons (DS) in the Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico. Nests were built in both the RS and the DS, but with greater nest initiation and brood provisioning in the RS, presumably as a consequence of more floral resources at this time of year. Across the year, numerical sex ratios were female biased (0.7 as females/total); sex ratios varied across individual nests from 0.3 to 1.00, though without a clear relationship to sociality. Egg-to-adult development was quicker in females than males and, within a sex, quicker when ambient temperatures were higher. Multi-female (social) nests were only founded at the end of the RS and the beginning of the DS, coincided with the presence of Hymenopteran and Dipteran parasites in nests headed by solitary females. Reduced floral resources and a higher risk of parasitism, possibly coupled with higher female density or reduced nesting sites, may be factors favoring the formation of multi-female associations in this euglossine. Better nourishment of foundress females in the RS may improve lifespan and permit overlapping generations which, coupled with the kin structure of their nests, may favor social nesting in E. viridissima.